« Articles, interviews sur la Pleine Conscience et ses applications »

Psychological Medicine : Prevalence of harm in mindfulness-based stress reduction

Par l’équipe de Richard J. Davidson –   July 2020 – anglais

Background. Mindfulness meditation has become a common method for reducing stress, stress-related psychopathology and some physical symptoms. As mindfulness programs become ubiquitous, concerns have  been raised about their unknown potential for harm.   We estimate multiple indices of harm following Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on two primary outcomes: global psychological and physical symptoms. In secondary analyses, we estimate multiple indices of harm on anxiety and depressive symptoms, discom- fort in interpersonal relations, paranoid ideation and psychoticism.

Methods. Intent-to-treat analyses with multiple imputations for missing data were used on pre- and post-test data from a large, observational dataset (n = 2155) of community health clinic MBSR classes and from MBSR (n = 156) and waitlist control (n = 118) participants from three randomized controlled trials conducted contemporaneous to community classes in the same city by the same health clinic MBSR teachers. We estimate the change in symptoms, proportion of participants with increased symptoms, proportion of participants reporting greater than a 35% increase in symptoms, and for global psychological symptoms, clinically significant harm.

Results. We find no evidence that MBSR leads to higher rates of harm relative – lire l’article

The benefits of meditation and mindfulness practices during times of crisis such as COVID-A9

Publiches by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The College of Psychiatrists of Ireland – anglais – mai 2020

« Meditation and mindfulness are practices that can support healthcare professionals, patients, carers and the general public during times of crisis suche as the curent global pandemic causes by COVID-19. While there are many forms of meditation and mindfulness, of particular interest to healthcare professionals are those with an evidence base suche as mindfulness-bases stress reduction (MBSR). Systematic reviews of such practices have shown improvements in measures of anxiety, depression and pain scores….. » – Lire l’article

Current Opinion in Psychology : Forword : Seeds of a necessary global renaissance in the making : the refining of psychology’s understanding of the nature of mind, self, and embodiment through the lens of mindfulness and its origins at a key inflection point for the species

Jon Kabat-Zinn for ScienceDirect –   février 2019 – anglais

« The faculty of voluntarily bringing back a wander- ing attention, over and over again, is the very root of judgment, character, and will. No one is compos sui if he have it not. An education which should improve this faculty would be the education par excellence. But it is easier to define this ideal than to give practical instructions for bringing it about. » William James, The Principles of Psychology (1890)

When William James penned these words in the late nineteenth century at Harvard University, in Cambridge Massachusetts, he had no inkling that on the other side of the planet, there were people at that very moment who were not only cognizant of but highly developed in operationalizing through rigorous practices the very potential he was intuiting and articulating so skill- fully—that is, recognizing and taming in the service of greater clarity and embodied wisdom, the tendency of our attention to wander. I am speaking, of course, about the systematic cultivation of mindfulness, or moment-to-moment, non-judgmental, non-reactive attending, and the awarness, insight, and potential liberation that can arise from that intentional cultivation. – lire l’article

Current Opinion in Psychology 2019 : Residential meditation retreats: their role in contemplative practice and significance for psychological  research

By Brandon G King, Quinn A Conklin, Anthony P Zanesco and Clifford D Saron for ScienceDirect –   Jan 2019 – anglais

Contemporary investigations of mindfulness and meditation have predominately emphasized the short-term effects of brief inductions or standardized, multi-week interventions in people with little to no prior meditation experience. Considerably less is known about the effects of continued or intensive meditation practice as proficiency and expertise are acquired over time. In this article, we describe the form and function of residential retreats, an understudied class of meditation intervention that holds promise for bridging this gap in the empirical literature. We outline a number of design features that distinguish retreats from other meditation-based interventions, and highlight their utility for informing functional and developmental perspectives on meditation, cognition, health, and well-being.  Lire l’article

Current Opinion in Psychology 2019 : Adding historical depth to definitions of mindfulness

By Bhikkhu Analayo for ScienceDirect –   oct 2018 – anglais

Research on Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) is hampered by semantic ambiguity surrounding the term ‘mindfulness’. Understanding the core quality involved in such research could be improved by adding historical depth to definitions of mindfulness, based on more detailed information on mindfulness from text-historical and doctrinal sources in the Buddhist traditions. Particular applications of mindfulness in current clinical usage could be compared to related approaches or doctrinal teachings in Buddhist traditions as part of an ongoing cross-disciplinary dialogue between academics in Buddhist studies and in psychology under the shared aim of deepening our understanding of what mindfulness involves and how it operates.- lire l’article

Current Opinion in Psychology 2019 : On the porosity of subject and object in ‘mindfulness’ scientific study: challenges to ‘scientific’ construction, operationalization and measurement of mindfulness

By Paul Grossman for ScienceDirect –   nov 2018 – anglais

The definition, operationalization and measurement of mindfulness in modern science are highly enmeshed in a web of complex historical, social, economic, political and technological factors. Fundamental and accepted scien- tific criteria are often cast aside in the process. This is exemplified by the massive proliferation of self- report mindfulness questionnaires in mindfulness research, despite the fact that they have been shown to have obvious and significant problems with validity and/or reliability in many studies (see later dis- cussion). How otherwise to explain that basic and obvious empirical evidence be so thoroughly discounted or ignored in the scientific invention of mindfulness? Because the evidence, by itself, seems unable to influ- ence a major research focus on mindfulness, it seems insufficient to dwell on and recapitulate already estab- lished empirical facts merely about, say, measurement issues of mindfulness. Another more contextual analysis is plainly necessary. Lire l’article

Current Opinion in Psychology 2019 : Epigenetics and meditation

By Perla Kaliman for ScienceDirect –   nov 2018 – anglais

In the last decade, epigenetics has taken center stage to explain the relationships between stress exposure, health and behavior. Acquired or inherited epigenetic changes modulate gene expression states without modifying the DNA sequence itself, they can be long-lasting, yet, they are potentially reversible. Several studies have explored whether meditation- based interventions can influence gene expression profiles towards healthier directions, identifying candidate genes and biological pathways that seem to be sensitive to contemplative practices. However, to date, the clinical implications of these molecular outcomes and their potential long-lasting epigenetic bases remain mostly unknown. The present article addresses these topics from a broad perspective and analyzes future research questions and perspectives at the crossroads of contemplative sciences and epigenetics. Lire l’article

Current Opinion in Psychology 2019 : The Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Teaching Assessment Criteria (MBI:TAC): reflections on implementation and development

By Rebecca S. Crane and Willem Kuyken for ScienceDirect –   oct 2018 – anglais

The Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Teaching Assessment Criteria (MBI:TAC) is a tool for supporting good practice in mindfulness-based teaching, training supervision and research contexts. It has been taken up in practice in teacher training organizations worldwide. The MBI:TAC sits within the wider consideration within research contexts of building methodological rigor by developing robust systems for ensuring intervention integrity. Research on the tool is at an early stage and needs development. The process of implementation needs careful attention to ensure reliability and good practice. Future research is needed on the tool’s reliability, validity and sensitivity to change, and on the relationships between mindfulness-based teaching, participant outcomes and key contextual factors, including the influence of participant population, culture and context. Lire l’article

Current Opinion in Psychology 2019 : Intervention integrity in mindfulness-based research: strengthening a key aspect of methodological rigor

By Rebecca S. Crane for ScienceDirect –   oct 2018 – anglais

To ensure methodological rigour, research on Mindfulness- Based Programs (MBPs) should include systems for assessing and reporting the integrity of the intervention. The critical variable of the quality of the teaching and the degree of adherence to the curriculum are likely to influence research outcomes and their interpretation. Currently, three tools for assessing intervention integrity in the MBP field have been developed, but they need further research and development. Research going forward needs to include systematic methods for demonstrating and verifying the integrity of the MBP, both to ensure the rigor of individual studies and to enable different studies of the same MBP to be fairly and validly compared with each other. Lire l’article

Campbell Collaboration – Social Welfair Coordinating Group : Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for improving health, quality of life and social functioning in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

By Michael de Vibe, Arild Bjørndal, Sabina Fattah, Gunvor M Dyrdal, Even Halland, Emily E Tanner-Smith –  2017 – anglais

Objectives : To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on health, quality of life and social functioning in adults.

Search methods : The following sources were searched, most recently in November 2015: PsycINFO (Ovid), MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) (Ovid), CINAHL (Ebsco), Ovid Nursing Full Text Plus (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), British Nursing Index, (ProQuest), Eric (ProQuest), ProQuest Medical Library, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source, ProQuest Psychology Journals, Web of Science, SveMed+, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts and International Bibliography of Social Sciences.

Selection criteria : The review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where the intervention followed the MBSR protocol developed by Kabat-Zinn, allowing for variations in the length of the MBSR courses. All target groups were accepted, as were all types of control groups, and no language restrictions were imposed.- lire l’article

 

Des articles de l’Express – 2014

  • « Je médite, tu médites, nous méditons… Cette pratique spirituelle venue d’Asie connait un tel essor partout en Occident, ces dernières années, qu’elle est devenue un phénomène de société – et un succès marketing. Méthode de relaxation, entraînement exigeant de l’esprit…De quoi s’agit-il, au juste ? Et quels effets concrets peut-on espérer ? Enquête par Nathalie Chahine
  • « Une nouvelle manière d’être » En occident, c’est l’autre grand nom du bouddhisme après le dalaï-lama. Moine et chercheur en génétique cellulaire, Matthieu Ricard parcourt le monde pour transmettre les vertus de la pratique méditative, placée sous le signe de la bienveillance. Article par Claire Chartier.
  • La cure du « docteur Sérénité » – chaque année, l’Omega Institute, près de New York, accueille des milliers de personnes venues suivre le stage du « pape » de la pleine conscience, Jon Kabat-Zinn. La méditation est au coeur des thérapies professées par ce brillant médecin. Plongée dans un monde étonnant de silence et de sensations. Article par Philippe Coste

Le Monde – Science & Médecine : « La méditation peut aider à prévenir le burn-out »

Interview de Matthieu Ricard par Sandrine Cabut et Pascale Santi – mai 2014

« …Quels sont les effets scientifiquement démontrés de la méditation? Les recherches sur la méditation (entraînement de l’esprit) ont vraiment commencé dans les années 2000, quand s’y sont penchés de grands scientifiques comme le neuro-psychiatre Richard Davidson,  de l’université du Wisconsin à Madison, ou Tania Singer, directrice du département de neuros-sciences sociales à l’Institut Max-Planck de Leipzig, spécialiste de l’empathie… » – lire l’article

MINDFULNESS : Qu’est-ce que c’est ? D’où cela est-il venu ?

Par Ronald D. Siegel, Christopher K. Germer, and Andrew Olendzki – mars 2014

A travers l’Histoire, les êtres humains ont cherché à découvrir les causes de la souffrance et les moyens de l’atténuer. Tôt ou tard, nous posons tous la même question : « Pourquoi est-ce que je ne me sens pas mieux ? », « Que puis-je faire pour ça? ».

Habiter un corps physique nous expose à la douleur associée à la maladie, l’âge avancé et la mort. Nous luttons également émotionnellement quand nous sommes confrontés à des circonstances adverses, ou avec des circonstances bénignes que nous voyons comme adverses.

Même quand nos vies sont relativement faciles, nous souffrons quand nous n’obtenons pas ce que nous voulons, quand nous perdons ce que nous avons eu, et quand nous devons faire avec ce que nous ne voulons pas. De la naissance à la mort, nous essayons incessamment de nous sen- tir mieux. Lire l’article

Meditation Increases Compassionate Responses to Suffering

2013 : By Paul Condon, Gaëlle Desbordes, Willa Miller & David DeSteno Northeastern UniversityMassachusetts General Hospital Harvard University

Contemplative science has documented a plethora of intra-personal benefits stemming from meditation, including increases in gray matter density (Hölzel, Carmody, et al., 2011), positive affect (Moyer et al., 2011) and improvement in various mental health outcomes (Hölzel, Lazar, et al., 2011). Strikingly, however, much less is known about the inter-personal impact of meditation. Although Buddhist teachings suggest that increases in compassionate responding should be a primary outcome of meditation (Davidson & Harrington, 2002), little scientific evidence exists to support this conjecture. Even as scientists have begun to examine the effects of meditation on prosocial action, the conclusions that can be drawn with respect to compassion have been limited by designs that lack real-time person-to-person interactions centered on suffering.- lire l’article

L’Inexploré : L’essor de la pleine conscience

Par Jon Kabat-Zinn – nov 2012

En créant le programme de réduction du stress par la méditation, Jon Kabat-Zinn a fait de la pleine conscience un outil de développement de la société.- lire l’article par Virginie Gomez