MEDITATION DE PLEINE CONSCIENCE – Ce qu’elle est, ce qu’elle n’est pas et son rôle dans la médecine et le soin

Jon Kabat-Zinn – 1996 – français

« La Réduction du Stress Basée sur la Pleine Conscience (MBSR – Mindulness Based Stress Reduction) est une approche générique et probante au prendre soin de soi, à la médecine participative, à l’éducation du patient et à la gestion efficace du stress, de la douleur et de la maladie. Elle fournit un cadre de référence presque universel pour favoriser les apprentissages internes et externes à propos du corps et de l’esprit, de la relation au monde et de sa place dans le monde ; ce qui favorise une croissance continue, une vie plus saine et une guérison tout au long de la vie. Comme telle, elle a le potentiel d’être un moyen d’enseigner à un nombre important de personnes comment rester en bonne santé et optimiser sa santé physique et émotionnelle, comment se tenir le plus possible à l’écart des hôpitaux, comment vivre mieux et faire face plus efficacement aux problèmes de santé chroniques pour lesquelles il n’existe pas de remèdes pour l’instant et comment utiliser le système de santé efficacement, avec un souci d’économie. Cette approche a aussi comme vertu de continuer à s’approfondir au fil du temps avec la pratique. » – Lire l’article

Some Reflections on the Origins of MBSR, Skillful Means, and the Trouble with Maps

Jon Kabat-Zinn – 2011 – anglais uniquement

« The author recounts some of the early history of what is now known as MBSR, and its relationship to mainstream medicine and the science of the mind/body connection and health. He stresses the importance that MBSR and other mindfulness-based interventions be grounded in a universal dharma understanding that is congruent with Buddhadarma but not constrained by its historical, cultural and religious manifestations associated with its counties of origin and their unique traditions. He locates these developments within an historic confluence of two very different epistemologies encountering each other for the first time, that of science and that of the meditative traditions. The author addresses the ethical ground of MBSR, as well as questions of lineage and of skillful “languaging” and other means for maximizing the possibility that the value of cultivating mindfulness in the largest sense can be heard and embraced and cultivated in commonsensical and universal ways in secular settings. He directly addresses mindfulness-based instructors on the subject of embodying and drawing forth the essence of the dharma without depending on the vocabulary, texts, and teaching forms of traditional Buddhist environments, even though they are important to know to one degree or another as part of one’s own development. » – Lire l’article

Les approches utilisant des exercices de méditation de type « mindfulness » ont-elles un rôle à jouer ?

Guido Bondolfi – 2019 – français

« La mindfulness (en français pleine conscience) représente le dénominateur commun qui est à la base des différents courants de pratique de méditation bouddhiste. Par pleine conscience, on entend le fait de porter son attention d’une manière particulière, délibérément, au moment présent et sans jugement de valeur. Au cours de ces dernières années, plusieurs approches thérapeutiques intégrant la pratique de la méditation (Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction ; Dialectical Behavior Therapy ; Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy) ont été développées et évaluées. Dans cet article nous examinons les mécanismes pouvant expliquer pourquoi cette pratique peut conduire à une réduction symptomatique et/ou à un changement comportemental dans le cadre de divers troubles émotionnels et plus particulièrement dans le traitement des troubles anxieux. » – Lire l’article

Brow University : Health Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR): A Review of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

Eric B. Loucks, PhD – 2019 – anglais uniquement

« Addiction – A systematic review by Goldberg et al.1 that evaluated studies published up to January 2017, showed only one small quasi-experimental MBSR study on addiction (n=30), that demonstrated significant improvements in drug cravings in those addicted to drugs.2 There were many more studies that used customized MBI’s such as Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP) and Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), with promising evidence.
Adiposity, Anxiety….. » – Lire l’article

Current Opinion in Psychology : Building an ark : creating a vessel for the education of MBSR teachers

Saki Santorelli – 2019 – anglais uniquement

« This paper is a response to an invitation by the editors of this special issue to write a first person account about mindfulnessbased stress reduction (MBSR) teacher education as it developed within the Stress Reduction Clinic (SRC) and Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society (CFM) at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. As the founder of Oasis Institute, I have attempted to describe, in very personal terms, the ground out of which Oasis emerged and the ways this ground shaped the intention, educational trajectory, pedagogy, and infrastructure of Oasis Institute. » – Lire l’article

Current Opinion in Psychology : The beauty we love: MBSR teacher education going forward

Saki Santorelli – 2019 – anglais uniquement

« The paper begins with a brief overview of the current field of mindfulness and MBSR. Following this, the paper identifies and details nine domains of MBSR teacher education to consider going forward. » – Lire l’article

Mindfulness-based stress reduction for family carers of people with dementia (Review)

Liu Z, Sun YY, Zhong BL – 2018 – anglais uniquement

« Caring for people with dementia is highly challenging, and family carers are recognised as being at increased risk of physical and mental ill-health.Most current interventions have limited success in reducing stress among carers of people with dementia. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) draws on a range of practices and may be a promising approach to helping carers of people with dementia. Objectives : To assess the effectiveness of MBSR in reducing the stress of family carers of people with dementia. » – Lire l’article

Too Early to Tell: The Potential Impact and Challenges—Ethical and Otherwise—Inherent in the Mainstreaming of Dharma in an Increasingly Dystopian World

Jon Kabat-Zinn – 2017 – anglais uniquement

« It is said that Zhou Enlai, the Chinese Premier, who as a young man was a major force in the Chinese Revolution, when asked late in life by a journalist for his thoughts about the legacy of the French Revolution, replied « Too early to tell ». It became a meme of sorts, even if it was based on a misunderstanding. I love the whole notion that it may be too early to tell—about a lot of emergences in our world. But sometimes, we need to act forcefully and with resolve, based on the best projections for what may take place given various lines of broadly accepted scientific evidence (such as the global receding of the glaciers and the melting of the polar ice caps) and its modeling algorithms, even if we cannot be sure of just how bad bad could be, such as in the case of global warming. By the time it plays out in real time, any action is already too late. My late Korean Zen teacher, Seung Sahn Seon Sa, was fond of saying, meaning just that, « The arrow is already downtown. » Whether the overwhelming evidence for global warming is denied by politicians in any given moment out of cynicism, ignorance, or greed is quite another story. » – Lire l’article

What defines mindfulness-based programs? The warp and the weft

R. S. Crane, J. Brewer, C. Feldman, J. Kabat-Zinn, S. Santorelli, J. M. G. Williams and W. Kuyken – 2016 – anglais uniquement

« There has been an explosion of interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy. This is demonstrated in increased research, implementation of MBPs in healthcare, educational, criminal justice and workplace settings, and in mainstream interest. For the sustainable development of the field there is a need to articulate a definition of what an MBP is and what it is not. This paper provides a framework to define the essential characteristics of the family of MBPs originating from the parent program MBSR, and the processes which inform adaptations of MBPs for different populations or contexts. The framework addresses the essential characteristics of the program and of teacher. » – Lire l’article

Brain and behavior : BOLD signal and functional connectivity associated with loving kindness meditation

Kathleen A. Garrison, Dustin Scheinost, R. Todd Constable & Judson A. Brewer – 2014 – anglais uniquement

« Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as “may all beings be happy,” to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation. We next used a relatively novel approach, the intrinsic connectivity distribution of functional connectivity, to identify regions that differ in intrinsic connectivity between groups, and then used a data-driven approach to seedbased connectivity analysis to identify which connections differ between groups. Our findings suggest group differences in brain regions involved in self-related processing and mind wandering, emotional processing, inner speech, and memory. Meditators showed overall reduced BOLD signal and intrinsic connectivity during loving kindness as compared to novices, more specifically in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), a finding that is consistent with our prior work and other recent neuroimaging studies of meditation. » – Lire l’article

Frontier in HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE : What about the “self” is processed in the posterior cingulate cortex?

Judson A. Brewer , Kathleen A. Garrison and Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli – 2013 – anglais uniquement

« In the past decade, neuroimaging research has begun to identify key brain regions involved in self-referential processing, most consistently midline structures such as the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The majority of studies have employed cognitive tasks such as judgment about trait adjectives or mind wandering, that have been associated with increased PCC activity. Conversely, tasks that share an element of present-centered attention (being “on task”), ranging from working memory to meditation, have been associated with decreased PCC activity. Given the complexity of cognitive processes that likely contribute to these tasks, the specific contribution of the PCC to self-related processes still remains unknown. Building on this prior literature, recent studies have employed sampling methods that more precisely link subjective experience to brain activity, such as real-time fMRI neurofeedback. This recent work suggests that PCC activity may represent a sub-component cognitive process of self-reference – “getting caught up in” one’s experience. » – Lire l’article

Mindfulness Training and Stress Reactivity in Substance Abuse : Results from a Randomized, Controlled Stage I Pilot Study

Judson A. Brewer, MD, PhD –  Rajita Sinha, PhD – Justin A. Chen, MD – Ravenna N. Michalsen, MA – Theresa A. Babuscio, MA – Charla Nich, MS – Aleesha Grier, PhD – Keri L. Bergquist, PhD – Deidre L. Reis, PhD – Marc N. Potenza, MD, PhD – Kathleen M. Carroll, PhD – Bruce J. Rounsaville, MD – 2009 – anglais uniquement

« Considerable evidence has accumulated suggesting that stress exposure can produce an increased arousal state similar to that induced by drug cues (1). Acute stress may increase selfadministration of drugs (2,3) and alcohol (4). This is consistent with incentive conditioning models stating that exposure to drug-related cues produces conditioned responses, which in turn can cue subsequent drug-seeking behavior and use (5). Stressful events and psychological distress are frequently cited reasons for relapse to drug use among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) (6–8). These data support the hypothesis that mechanisms related to stress are critical in the establishment of addictions and their propagation as chronic disorders (9,10). Mindfulness-based therapies have shown preliminary evidence for efficacy in the treatment of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use disorders (11–17). For example, Zgierska and colleagues found reductions in anxiety, depression, and stress symptom severity in individuals with alcohol dependence who were enrolled in an 8-week mindfulness meditation intervention after completing an intensive outpatient program (12). » – Lire l’article

Associations and dissociations between default and self-reference networks in the human brain

Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli⁎,1, Joseph M. Moran, Alfonso Nieto-Castañón, Christina Triantafyllou, Rebecca Saxe, John D.E. Gabrieli – 2011 – anglais uniquement

« Neuroimaging has revealed consistent activations in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) extending to precuneus both during explicit self-reference tasks and during rest, a period during which some form of self-reference is assumed to occur in the default mode of brain function. The similarity between these two patterns of midline cortical activation may reflect a common neural system for explicit and default-mode self-reference, but there is little direct evidence about the similarities and differences between
the neural systems that mediate explicit self-reference versus default-mode self-reference during rest. In two experiments, we compared directly the brain regions activated by explicit self-reference during judgments about trait adjectives and by rest conditions relative to a semantic task without self-reference. Explicit selfreference preferentially engaged dorsal MPFC, rest preferentially engaged precuneus, and both self-reference and rest commonly engaged ventral MPFC and PCC. These findings indicate that there are both associations
(shared components) and dissociations between the neural systems underlying explicit self-reference and the default mode of brain function. » – Lire l’article

Drug and Alcohol Dependence – Mindfulness training for smoking cessation: Results from a randomized controlled trial

Judson A. Brewer, Sarah Mallik, Theresa A. Babuscio, Charla Nich, Hayley E. Johnson, Cameron M. Deleone, Candace A. Minnix-Cotton, Shannon A. Byrne, Hedy Kober, Andrea J. Weinstein, Kathleen M. Carroll, Bruce J. Rounsaville – 2011 – anglais uniquement

« ….Mainstay behavioral treatments for smoking have focused on teaching individuals to avoid cues, foster positive affective states, develop lifestyle changes that reduce stress (e.g., practice relaxation), divert attention from cravings, substitute other activities for smoking, learn cognitive strategies that reduce negative mood, and develop social support mechanisms (Fiore et al., 2000, 2008; Lando et al., 1990). These have shown modest success, with abstinence rates hovering between 20 and 30% over the past three decades (Law and Tang, 1995; Shiffman, 1993). This may be because triggers are often ubiquitous, and diversion of attention requires cognitive reserves, which are often depleted after strong negative affective states (Muraven and Baumeister, 2000). » – Lire l’article

Meditation and Compassionate Behavior

Paul Condon, Gaëlle Desbordes, Willa Miller, & David DeSteno – 2013 – anglais uniquement

« Meditation Increases Compassionate Responses to Suffering Contemplative science has documented a plethora of intra-personal benefits stemming from meditation, including increases in gray matter density (Hölzel, Carmody, et al., 2011), positive affect (Moyer et al., 2011) and improvement in various mental health outcomes (Hölzel, Lazar, et al., 2011). Strikingly, however, much less is known about the inter-personal impact of meditation. Although Buddhist teachings suggest that increases in compassionate responding should be a primary outcome of meditation (Davidson & Harrington, 2002), little scientific evidence exists to support this conjecture. Even as scientists have begun to examine the effects of meditation on prosocial action, the conclusions that can be drawn with respect to compassion have been limited by designs that lack real-time person-to-person interactions centered on suffering. » – Lire l’article

Depression relapse prophylaxis with Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy : Replication and extension in the Swiss health care system

Guido Bondolfi, Françoise Jermann, Martial Van der Linden, Marianne Gex-Fabry, Lucio Bizzini, Béatrice Weber Rouget, Lusmila Myers-Arrazola, Christiane Gonzalez, Zindel Segal, Jean-Michel Aubry, Gilles Bertschy – 2010 – anglais uniquement

« Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a group intervention that integrates elements of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with components of mindfulness training to prevent depressive relapse. The efficacy of MBCT compared to Treatment As Usual (TAU), shown in two randomized controlled trials indicates a significant decrease in 1-year relapse rates for patients with at least three past depressive episodes. The present study is the first independent replication trial comparing MBCT+TAU to TAU alone across both language and culture (Swiss health care system) »- Lire l’article

Mindfulness-Based Interventions: An Emerging Phenomenon

Margaret Cullen – 2011 – anglais uniquement

« I offer an overview of the rapidly growing field of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). A working definition of mindfulness in this context includes the brahma viharas, sampajanna and appamada, and suggests a very particular mental state which is both wholesome and capable of clear and penetrating insight into the nature of reality. The practices in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) that apply mindfulness to the four  foundations are outlined, along with a brief history of the program and the original intentions of the founder, Jon Kabat-Zinn. The growth and scope of these interventions are detailed with demographics provided by the Center for Mindfulness, an overview of salient research studies and a listing of the varied MBIs that have grown out of MBSR. The question of ethics is explored, and other challenges are raised including teacher qualification and clarifying the “outer limits,” or minimum requirements, of what constitutes an MBI. Current trends are explored, including the increasing number of cohort-specific interventions as well as the publication of books, articles, and workbooks by a new generation of MBI teachers. Together, they form an emerging picture of MBIs as their own new “lineage,” which look to MBSR as their inspiration and original source »  – Lire l’article

Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) dans la prévention des rechutes thymiques chez le patient bipolaire I : une étude pilote

C. Mirabel-Sarron, E. Siobud Dorocant, L. Sala, M. Bachelart, J.-D. Guelfi, F. Rouillon – 2009 – français

« Plusieurs études ont montré l’efficacité de l’utilisation de la mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) dans la prévention des rechutes dépressives chez le patient non bipolaire (Segal et al. [2001] [14]), puis d’autres travaux ont exploré les effets de cette approche sur les ruminations Q1 du sujet dépressif (Teasdale [2000] [15] ; Watkins, Teasdale, 2001). Cette étude pilote est la première qui inclut exclusivement des patients bipolaires I répartis en trois groupes qui ont bénéficié du programme MBCT en huit séances. Tous ces patients avaient suivi au préalable le programme de thérapie  comportementale et cognitive (TCC) de groupe pour bipolaires (modèle de Lam). Cette étude clinique et psychologique montre la faisabilité du programme, sa bonne acceptation par les sujets avec une tendance à l’augmentation de la capacité de pleine conscience relative à l’assiduité de la démarche » – Lire l’article

Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice

Antoine Lutz, Lawrence L. Greischar, Nancy B. Rawlings, Matthieu Ricard, and Richard J. Davidson – 2004 – anglais uniquement

« Practitioners understand ‘‘meditation,’’ or mental training, to be a process of familiarization with one’s own mental life leading to long-lasting changes in cognition and emotion. Little is known about this process and its impact on the brain. Here we find that long-term Buddhist practitioners self-induce sustained electroencephalographic high-amplitude gamma-band oscillations and phase-synchrony during meditation. These  electroencephalogram patterns differ from those of controls, in particular over lateral frontoparietal electrodes. In addition, the ratio of gamma-band activity (25–42 Hz) to slow oscillatory activity (4–13 Hz) is initially higher in the resting baseline before meditation for the practitioners than the controls over medial frontoparietal electrodes. This difference increases sharply during meditation over most of the scalp electrodes and remains higher than the initial baseline in the postmeditation baseline. These data suggest that mental training involves temporal integrative mechanisms and may induce shortterm and long-term neural changes » – Lire l’article

The “UNIVERSAL DHARMA FOUNDATION” of mindfulness-based stress reduction :  nonduality and mahāyāna buddhist influences in the work of Jon Kabat-Zinn

Study of Religions, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland – 2019 – anglais uniquement

« The discussion on the Buddhist roots of contemporary mindfulness practices is dominated by a narrative which considers the Theravāda tradition and Theravādabased ‘neo-vipassanā movement’ as the principal source of Buddhist influences in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and related mindfulness-based programmes (MBPs). This Theravāda bias fails to acknowledge the significant Mahāyāna Buddhist influences that have informed the pioneering work of Jon Kabat-Zinn in the formation of the MBSR programme. In Kabat-Zinn’s texts, the ‘universal dharma foundation’ of mindfulness practice is grounded in pan-Buddhist teachings on the origins and cessation of suffering. While MBSR methods derive from both Theravāda-based vipassanā and non-dual Mahāyāna approaches, the philosophical foundation of MBSR differs significantly from Theravāda views. Instead, the characteristic principles and insights of MBSR practice indicate significant similarities and historical continuities with contemporary Zen/Sŏn/Thiền and Tibetan Dzogchen teachings based on doctrinal developments within Indian and East Asian Mahāyāna Buddhism » – Lire l’article

Competence in Teaching Mindfulness-Based Courses: Concepts, Development and Assessment

Rebecca S. Crane & Willem Kuyken & J. Mark G. Williams & Richard P. Hastings & Lucinda Cooper & Melanie J. V. Fennell – 2011 – anglais uniquement

« There has been a groundswell of interest in the UK in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and its derivatives, particularly Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). Many health, education and social work practitioners have sought ways to develop their competencies as mindfulness-based teachers, and increasing numbers of organisations are developing mindfulness-based training programmes. However, the rapid expansion of interest in mindfulness-based approaches has meant that those people offering training for MBSR and MBCT teachers have had to consider some quite fundamental questions about training processes, standards and competence. They also need to consider how to develop a robust professional context for the next generation of mindfulness-based teachers. The ways in which competencies are addressed in the secular mainstream contexts in which MBSR and MBCT are taught are examined to enable a consideration of the particularities of mindfulness-based teaching competence » – Lire l’article

Some Reflections on Being Good, on not Being Good and on Just Being

Rebecca S. Crane – 2014 – anglais uniquement

« Over the last 12 years, through my work at the Centre for Mindfulness Research and Practice (CMRP) at Bangor University, I have been engaged with colleagues (both within CMRP and from other training centres in the UK) in an exploration of how to support the development of a robust professional practice context for our own teaching team and for the growing community of mindfulness-based teachers in the UK. There have been a number of  academic outputs from these collaborative engagements (Crane, Kuyken, Hastings, Rothwell, andWilliams 2010; Crane and Kuyken 2012; Crane et al. 2012a; Crane et al. 2013; Crane et al. 2014) » – Lire l’article

Intensive meditation training, immune cell telomerase activity, and psychological mediators

Tonya L. Jacobs, Elissa S. Epel, Jue Lin, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Owen M. Wolkowitz, David A. Bridwell, Anthony P. Zanesco, Stephen R. Aichele, Baljinder K. Sahdra, Katherine A. MacLean, Brandon G. King, Phillip R. Shaver, Erika L. Rosenberg, Emilio Ferrer, B. Alan Wallace and Clifford D.  Saron – 2011 – anglais uniquement

« Telomerase activity is a predictor of long-term cellular viability, which decreases with chronic psychological distress ( Epel et al., 2004 ). Buddhist traditions claim that meditation decreases psychological distress and promotes well-being (e.g., Dalai Lama and Cutler, 2009 ). Therefore, we investigated the effects of a 3-month meditation retreat on telomerase activity and two major contributors to the experience of stress: Perceived Control (associated with decreased stress) and Neuroticism (associated with increased subjective distress). We used mediation models to test whether changes in Perceived Control and Neuroticism explained meditation retreat effects on telomerase activity. In addition, we investigated whether two qualities developed by meditative practice, increased Mindfulness and Purpose in Life, accounted for retreat-related changes in the two stress-related variables and in telomerase activity » – Lire l’article